A compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3, this is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent odour. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilisers. Ammonia, as used commercially, is often called anhydrous ammonia to emphasise the absence of water in the material.
This is essentially elemental sulphur, in the form of yellow to off-yellow pastilles of up to 10mm diameter, together with some fines or a yellowish, coarse powder (screened) that is free from foreign matter. It is principally used for sulphur dioxide manufacture, sulphuric acid manufacture and various industrial applications.
Essentially sulphur, molten sulphur takes the form of yellow to dark brown crystals and powder at room temperature. It is liquid at high temperature – between 135° and 154°C, it becomes a yellow, molten mass.
Essentially alumina trihydrate (Al2O3.3H2O), aluminium tri-hydrate is sometimes also called aluminium hydroxide and represented by the formula Al(OH)3, in the form of a coarse, off-white, damp powder. It finds application as a raw material in the production of water treatment chemicals, flame retardant and filler in paper.
Also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, nitric acid is a highly corrosive and toxic strong acid, commonly used as a strong oxidising agent.
This is an aqueous solution of ammonia (ammonium hydroxide, NH4OH), and takes the form of a clear, colourless to slightly yellowish liquid with a pungent, suffocating odour. Consisting of 10-35% ammonia and 65-90% water, this product finds application in water treatment, fertilisers and mineral processing.
Sodium hydroxide is a caustic, metallic base. It is used in many industries, mostly as a strong chemical base in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner.